Technical Perspective: What Saturation Diving Really Means (And What Watchmakers Do About It)
Scuba includes getting ready outdoors, and plunging to profundity breathing some breathing gas blend from compressed air tanks, and afterward getting back to the surface. More profound plunging requires the utilization of an option in contrast to nitrogen and oxygen (which make up the vast majority of the air we breathe on a superficial level) as nitrogen can prompt nitrogen narcosis at profundities as shallow as 30 meters – nitrogen narcosis is frequently compared to being smashed. Hence, in more profound jumping helium and here and there hydrogen are regularly utilized in combination with, or as a substitute for nitrogen; helium, in contrast to nitrogen, doesn’t cause narcosis at depth.
Saturation jumper during rescue activity. (U.S. Naval force photograph by Chief Photographer’s Mate Eric J. Tilford )
Scuba jumpers should for the most part make decompression stops in transit back up to the surface. The explanation behind this is that as you breathe compressed gasses, they continuously disintegrate into your body tissues (you can evade this by not jumping adequately profound, or remaining down long enough, to require decompression stops, obviously). Halting once in a while in transit up, permits these disintegrated gasses to leave the body progressively and innocuously. In the event that you come up without taking decompression stops, these equivalent broke up gasses will frame rises in blood and body tissues, causing injury and even demise (decompression disorder is additionally called “the bends”).
Saturation plunging was created and first utilized during the 1960s, for commercial jumping. Commercial jumpers dealing with profoundly lowered offices, (for example, oil siphoning gear on the ocean bottom) need to remain down longer than the exceptionally restricted time that scuba would permit at such profundities, and furthermore past a specific profundity scuba becomes excessively hazardous for customary commercial applications. To improve both base time and security, immersion jumpers live and work from fixed compressed chambers on surface help ships. Jumpers enter the chambers, which are then bit by bit brought to the pressing factor the jumpers will insight at working profundity. The expression “immersion” alludes to the way that the jumper’s body tissues are soaked with the greatest measure of disintegrated gasses conceivable at that depth.
Schematic plan of a straightforward immersion framework, showing the fundamental pressing factor vessels for human occupation: DDC – Living chamber; DTC – Transfer chamber; PTC – Personnel move chamber (ringer) RC – Recompression chamber; SL – Supply lock. ( Image: Wikimedia Commons )
To get to the ocean bottom, jumpers leave their pressing factor chamber environment through a sealed area, and enter a plunging chime. The plunging chime is then brought down to the seabed (or required working profundity) and the jumpers leave the jumping ringer to work. A jumper stays on board the plunging chime to screen the working jumpers. When the jumpers have completed their day of work, they reemerge the chime, which is raised back to the surface, and the following movement can start. The favorable circumstances over scuba are significant and keeping in mind that lone a modest bunch of scuba jumpers have at any point gone further than 300m, immersion jumpers regularly work at profundities of 100m to up to 500m.
Diving chime as utilized in immersion plunging. ( Photo: Peter Southwood )
Amazingly there have all the earmarks of being not many sick impacts if any related with functioning as an immersion jumper (a couple of people appear to be powerless to bone misfortune) and whenever done cautiously, immersion plunging is completely protected. In any case, the jumpers must remain in a compressed climate for the length of their work time, which can be up to 3 weeks or more. This implies living in a high-pressure living space at extremely lacking elbow room with other jumpers, under consistent video reconnaissance (a need for security reasons) with no privacy.
While in the chambers, jumpers are checked by cameras 24 hours every day. With cameras set straightforwardly over the shower and latrines, security is non-existent. (Photo: Photographer’s Mate 1st Class (AW) Shane T. McCoy )
Considerable passionate equilibrium is required and those with irritabilities or helpless cooperation abilities need not make a difference. Food and other supplies should enter and leave the territory by means of a little isolated space and any remissness in guaranteeing that the chamber is kept completely fixed would be lethal.
Imagine for example that your working profundity is 250 meters. That is identical to 25x the pneumatic force on a superficial level. Should an isolated space come up short, so much excess gas in a jumper’s body will immediately set out toward the ways out (at this profundity, with a power of 367.5 lbs. per square inch) prompting inescapable quick inside injury and moment demise. Significant decompression mishaps luckily have verifiably been very rare.
Hyperbaric escape case. ( Photo: Peter Southwood )
Should a help transport endure a crisis which requires relinquishing transport, jumpers do have a leave methodology: an escape trunk leads from the on-board compressed living space to a compressed (hyperbaric) escape module, permitting the jumpers to departure a stricken vessel safely.
The Rolex Sea-Dweller
The most recent immersion plunging watch from Rolex is the new-for-2017 Sea-Dweller ref. 126600. Peruse our Week On The Wrist inclusion here .
For watches, the issue is additionally interior pressing factor, as helium. Oxygen structures particles too huge to even think about penetrating the seals of a jump watch, however helium molecules are little enought to go through the gaskets of a plunge watch. This can prompt pressing factor developing inside the jump watch case. At the point when jumpers start decompression toward the finish of their multi-week working period, the drop in outer pressing factor can prompt a moderately higher pressing factor inside the watch case as the helium can’t leave the inside of the case as fast as outside pressing factor is dropping (decompression time differs with working profundity and can take anyplace from days to weeks). This can prompt the precious stone being constrained off when outer pressing factor drops low enough.
Rolex Sea-Dweller helium escape valve.
There are two arrangements. Many plunge watch producers construct helium discharge valves into the instances of their watches to permit departure of helium particles in a controlled design during decompression. Essentially unscrewing the crown may permit overabundance gas to escape in a vicious design which could harm inside components. The other arrangement is to assemble a watch case that can’t be penetrated by huge measures of helium in any case; Seiko utilizes this methodology for its Marinemaster Professional immersion jumping watches albeit this appears to require the development of a fairly bigger case – however the potential gain is more noteworthy underlying integrity.
Finally there is whether or not a date work is valuable in a jump watch. It is doubtful that a date is pointless for a watch implied for scuba however it is difficult to reject that it very well may be alluring for an immersion jumper, who should live cut off from the rest of the world for quite a long time at a time.
It’s a profoundly upsetting workplace – in spite of the fact that perception of right methodology keeps things predictable, disaster is just a misused valve away; something that unquestionably burdens each immersion jumper’s conscience. Anything that helps keep a jumper situated concerning time would surely be an or more under such circumstances.
With an aggregate of 570 seaward boring stages in activity in the North Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and Southeast Asia alone starting at 2015, there stays a lot of work for immersion jumpers. Episodically, video narrative proof would appear to show that not a couple of immersion jumpers wear reason fabricated plunge watches.
HODINKEE donor and extremely experienced scuba jumper Jason Heaton has sees on helium escape valves; see what he needs to say here.